Core Modals As Pragmatic Markers In Literary Discourse And Their Pedagogical Implications: A Systemic Fungsional Perspective

Lalu Muhaimi, Lalu Nurtaat, Eka Fitriana


This is a systemic functional study of the use of the items of pragmatic markers in a literary discourse. The aims of this study are to identify, analyze and describe the ways the items of pragmatic markers are used. Their contextual meanings, functions, and implication to the pedagogical attempts are also unfolded. The results of the interpretative and descriptive analysis reveal that the items of the core modals serving as pragmatic markers are found to be very dominant which also suggests that the genre of narrative fiction is linguistically characterized by the utterances that are established on the basis of knowledge and reasoning. The items of pragmatic markers are found to be polysemous and polyfunctional which are reflected pragmatically in the forms of politeness, negotiative and constructive functions. All these lead to the acknowledgement that the use of the items of pragmatic markers in literary discourse is important and their usage for language teaching in the applied linguistic contexts is worth conducting.

Full Text:



Bara, Bruno G. 2010. Cognitive Pragmatics: The Mental Processes of Communication. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Bybee, Joan and Fleischman, Suzanne. 1995. Pragmatic markers in Grammar and Discourse: An Introductory Essay. In Bybee, J., and Fleischman, S. (eds.). Pragmatic markers in Grammar and Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp. 1-14.

Choi, S. 2006. Acquisition of Pragmatic markers. In Frawley, W. (ed.). The Expression of Pragmatic markers. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 141-172.

Daalder, S. and Musolff, A. 2011.Foundation of Pragmatics in Functional Linguistics. In Bublitz, Wolfram and Norrick, R. (eds.). Foundations of Pragmatics. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Pp. 229-260.

De Haan, F. 2006. Typological Approaches to Pragmatic markers. In Frawley, W. (ed.). The Expression of Pragmatic markers. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Pp. 27-70.

Dirven, R., and Verspoor, M. (eds.). 2004. Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics. Amsterdam.: John Benjamin, B.V.

Dörnyey, Z. 2007. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fasold, W. R., and Connor-Linton, J. 2006.An Introduction to Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Halliday, M.A.K. 1970. Functional Diversity in Language as Seen from a Consideration of Pragmatic markers and Mood in English.In Foundations of Language, 6: 322-361.

Haralson, E.L., and Johnson, K. 2009. Critical Companion to Henry James: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York: Facts On File.

Kirvalidze, N. 2006.The Author’s Pragmatic markers and Stratificational Structure of a Literary Text in Modern English.International Refereed Multi-diciplinary Scientific Journal No. 1. Pp. 138-143

Krippendorff, K. 2004. Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. London, SAGE Publications.

Meisner, C. 2004. Henry James and the Language of Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Miller, J. H. 2005. Literature as Conduct: Speech Acts in Henry James. New York: Fordham University Press.

Narrog, H. 2005. Pragmatic markers, Mood, and Change of Modal Meanings: A New Perspective. In Cognitive Linguistics, 16-4. Pp. 677-731.

Palmer, F. R., 1990. Pragmatic markers and the English Modals, Second Edition. Longman, London.

Palmer, F. R., 2001. Mood and Pragmatic markers, Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Papafragou, A. 2000.Pragmatic markers: Issues in the Semantics-Pragmatics Interface. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Patard, A., and Brisard, F. (eds.). 2011. Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Pragmatic markers. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Company.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum.S., Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. 1985.A Comprehensive Grammar of English Language. London: Longman

Radden, G., and Dirven, R. 2007. Cognitive English Grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V.

Roudiez, L. S. (ed.). 2008. Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. New York: Columbia University Press.

Traugott, E. C. 1989. On the Rise of Epistemic Meanings in English: An Example of Subjectification in Semantic Change. In Language, 65/1. Pp. 31-55.

von Fintel, K. and Iatridou, S. 2003. Epistemic Containment.Linguistic Inquiry 34. Pp. 173–198.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


JIPP's Visitors

Flag Counter


Editor's Office

Jurnal Ilmiah Profesi Pendidikan

FKIP Universitas Mataram, Jln. Majapahit no. 62 Mataram 83125, Lombok, NTB Indonesia


Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.